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Genetic factors in the development of coronary artery disease

The risk of coronary artery disease (CAD) is significantly associated with genetic factors. Close to 60 common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have been identified. Moreover, a total of 202 independent signals in 109 loci together was reported to explain 28% of the estimated heritability of CAD. However, little is knwon regarding the function of the novel loci linked to CAD; the majority of which are in noncoding regions of the genome.
Based on these data, genetic risk scores have been created improving risk prediction beyond conventional risk factors, such as smoking, diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia and high blood pressure. In particular, genetic risk scores can be used to identified those individuals who will benefit most from statin therapy. Further, using a Mendelian randomization approach, such information may promote the investigation of the causal nature of many CAD risk-related factors, identified in epidemiological studies.
In general, the genetic architecture of CAD …

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