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Impact of ACE and ApoE polymorphisms on myocardial perfusion: correlation with myocardial single photon emission computed tomographic imaging

J Hum Genet. 2009;54(10):595-602 Impact of ACE and ApoE polymorphisms on myocardial perfusion: correlation with myocardial single photon em...

Saturated fat does not clog the arteries: Coronary heart disease is a chronic inflammatory condition, the risk of which can be effectively reduced from healthy lifestyle interventions

Br J Sports Med. 2017 Aug;51(15):1111-2
Malhotra A, Redberg RF, Meier P

Coronary artery disease pathogenesis and treatment urgently requires a paradigm shift. Despite popular belief among doctors and the public, the conceptual model of dietary saturated fat clogging a pipe is just plain wrong. A landmark systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies showed no association between saturated fat consumption and (1) all-cause mortality, (2) coronary heart disease (CHD), (3) CHD mortality, (4) ischaemic stroke or (5) type 2 diabetes in healthy adults. Similarly in the secondary prevention of CHD there is no benefit from reduced fat, including saturated fat, on myocardial infarction, cardiovascular or all-cause mortality. It is instructive to note that in an angiographic study of postmenopausal women with CHD, greater intake of saturated fat was associated with less progression of atherosclerosis whereas carbohydrate and polyunsaturated fat intake were associated with greater progression.

Appropriate use criteria for ventilation-perfusion imaging in pulmonary embolism: Summary and excerpts

J Nucl Med. 2017;58(5):13N-15N
Waxman AD, Bajc M, Brown M, Fahey FH, Freeman LM, Haramati LB, et al.

Perfusion lung imaging for diagnosing pulmonary embolism (PE) was introduced 50 y ago. At that time, it offered a noninvasive alternative to pulmonary angiography in patients with a clinical suspicion of PE. Because there are many causes of diminished regional blood flow in the lungs, particularly redistribution of blood flow away from regions with lung disease, the subsequent introduction of radionuclide ventilation studies added greater specificity to findings on radionuclide perfusion imaging. When appropriately used and interpreted, ventilation–perfusion (V/Q) scintigraphy is an important examination for the evaluation of patients suspected of having regional compromise of lung perfusion and ventilation. 
The purpose of this document is to describe the appropriate use of V/Q scintigraphy in patients suspected of having acute PE. It is hoped that through these recommendations, V/Q scintigraphy will be appropriately applied to benefit patients. 
Representatives from the Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging (SNMMI), the European Association of Nuclear Medicine (EANM), the American Society of Hematology (ASH), the Society of Thoracic Surgeons (STS), and the American College of Emergency Physicians (ACEP), as well as chest radiologists, emergency department physicians, pulmonary critical care physicians, and physician experts in thromboembolic disease, assembled as an autonomous workgroup to develop the following appropriate use criteria (AUC). This process was performed in accordance with the Protecting Access to Medicare Act of 2014. This legislation requires that all referring physicians consult AUC using a clinical decision support mechanism before ordering any advanced diagnostic imaging service. Such services are defined as diagnostic MRI, CT, nuclear medicine procedures (including PET), and others as specified by the secretary of Health and Human Services in consultation with physician specialty organizations and other stakeholders. These AUC are intended to aid referring medical practitioners in the appropriate use of V/Q scans in patients suspected of having PE.

Comparison of coronary CT angiography, SPECT, PET, and hybrid imaging for diagnosis of ischemic heart disease determined by fractional flow reserve

JAMA Cardiol. 2017;2(10):1100-7
Danad I, Raijmakers PG, Driessen RS, Leipsic J, Raju R, Naoum C, et al.

Importance: At present, the choice of noninvasive testing for a diagnosis of significant coronary artery disease (CAD) is ambiguous, but nuclear myocardial perfusion imaging with single-photon emission tomography (SPECT) or positron emission tomography (PET) and coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) is predominantly used for this purpose. However, to date, prospective head-to-head studies are lacking regarding the diagnostic accuracy of these imaging modalities. Furthermore, the combination of anatomical and functional assessments configuring a hybrid approach may yield improved accuracy.
Objectives: To establish the diagnostic accuracy of CCTA, SPECT, and PET and explore the incremental value of hybrid imaging compared with fractional flow reserve.
Design, Setting, and Participants: A prospective clinical study involving 208 patients with suspected CAD who underwent CCTA, technetium 99m/tetrofosmin-labeled SPECT, and [15O]H2O PET with examination of all coronary arteries by fractional flow reserve was performed from January 23, 2012, to October 25, 2014. Scans were interpreted by core laboratories on an intention-to-diagnose basis. Hybrid images were generated in case of abnormal noninvasive anatomical or functional test results.
Main Outcomes and Measures: Hemodynamically significant stenosis in at least 1 coronary artery as indicated by a fractional flow reserve of 0.80 or less and relative diagnostic accuracy of SPECT, PET, and CCTA in detecting hemodynamically significant CAD.
Results: Of the 208 patients in the study (76 women and 132 men; mean [SD] age, 58 [9] years), 92 (44.2%) had significant CAD (fractional flow reserve ≤0.80). Sensitivity was 90% (95% CI, 82%-95%) for CCTA, 57% (95% CI, 46%-67%) for SPECT, and 87% (95% CI, 78%-93%) for PET, whereas specificity was 60% (95% CI, 51%-69%) for CCTA, 94% (95% CI, 88%-98%) for SPECT, and 84% (95% CI, 75%-89%) for PET. Single-photon emission tomography was found to be noninferior to PET in terms of specificity (P < .001) but not in terms of sensitivity (P > .99) using the predefined absolute margin of 10%. Diagnostic accuracy was highest for PET (85%; 95% CI, 80%-90%) compared with that of CCTA (74%; 95% CI, 67%-79%; P = .003) and SPECT (77%; 95% CI, 71%-83%; P = .02). Diagnostic accuracy was not enhanced by either hybrid SPECT and CCTA (76%; 95% CI, 70%-82%; P = .75) or by PET and CCTA (84%; 95% CI, 79%-89%; P = .82), but resulted in an increase in specificity (P = .004) at the cost of a decrease in sensitivity (P = .001).
Conclusions and Relevance: This controlled clinical head-to-head comparative study revealed PET to exhibit the highest accuracy for diagnosis of myocardial ischemia. Furthermore, a combined anatomical and functional assessment does not add incremental diagnostic value but guides clinical decision-making in an unsalutary fashion.

[18F]DPA-714 PET imaging reveals global neuroinflammation in Zika virus-infected mice

Mol Imaging Biol. 2017 Sep 12
Kuszpit K, Hollidge BS, Zeng X, Stafford RG, Daye S, Zhang X, et al.

Purpose: The association of Zika virus (ZIKV) infection and development of neurological sequelae require a better understanding of the pathogenic mechanisms causing severe disease. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the ability and sensitivity of positron emission tomography (PET) imaging using [18F]DPA-714, a translocator protein (TSPO) 18 kDa radioligand, to detect and quantify neuroinflammation in ZIKV-infected mice.
Procedures: We assessed ZIKV-induced pathogenesis in wild-type C57BL/6 mice administered an antibody to inhibit type I interferon (IFN) signaling. [18F]DPA-714 PET imaging was performed on days 3, 6, and 10 post-infection (PI), and tissues were subsequently processed for histological evaluation, quantification of microgliosis, and detection of viral RNA by in situ hybridization (ISH).
Results: In susceptible ZIKV-infected mice, viral titers in the brain increased from days 3 to 10 PI. Over this span, these mice showed a two- to sixfold increase in global brain neuroinflammation using [18F]DPA-714 PET imaging despite limited, regional detection of viral RNA. No measurable increase in ionized calcium binding adaptor molecule 1 (Iba-1) expression was noted at day 3 PI; however, there was a modest increase at day 6 PI and an approximately significant fourfold increase in Iba-1 expression at day 10 PI in the susceptible ZIKV-infected group relative to controls.
Conclusions: The results of the current study demonstrate that global neuroinflammation plays a significant role in the progression of ZIKV infection and that [18F]DPA-714 PET imaging is a sensitive tool relative to histology for the detection of neuroinflammation. [18F]DPA-714 PET imaging may be useful in dynamically characterizing the pathology associated with neurotropic viruses and the evaluation of therapeutics being developed for treatment of infectious diseases.